Sprinkled across the Spanish Peninsula, you'll come across Jewish Quarters known as juderías. In Córdoba, which was once considered the most populous city in the world, the Jewish community especially thrived, and now its ancient neighborhood of white buildings is considered one of the most famous juderías in Spain.
The Jewish community indeed played an important role culturally in the history of the Iberian Peninsula. During the Moorish Caliphate -- the period of Islamic rule over Spain which ended in 1031 -- the Jewish community flourished as Córdoba rose as a center for commerce, prosperity, education and religious tolerance.
Of course, in 1492 during the Spanish Inquisition, people of Jewish faith and the religion itself were expelled from Spain, their neighborhoods becoming only artifacts of their presence in the country's history. Among Córboba's Jewish Quarter's most famous sites is undoubtedly the synagogue, one of just three of its kind in Spain that survived the Inquisition (the other two are located in the city of Toledo), and the only one in all of Andalucia.
Also located in the barrio's small streets is Casa Sefarad, a cultural project dedicated to telling the story of Judeo-Spanish history in Spain. Within its walls, you can visit five different rooms, featuring Sephardic music, handicrafts and other cultural artifacts.
While wandering the small streets, keep an eye out for the statue of Maimónides, the famous Jewish doctor and philosopher, and peruse the jewelry and silversmith shops, for which the neighborhood is renowned.